In recent years, super resolution microscopy has been rapidly applied in biological study. Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is one of the most powerful optical super resolution microscopy that can be used for protein nanoimaging in living cells. Moreover, optical antennas have also been adapted to NSOM and greatly improved the performance of NSOM. In this mini review, the application of different optical antennas for NSOM has been described, and the use of NSOM for protein nanoimaging has also been highlighted.
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated gene silencing plays an important role in functional identification of novel genes and therapeutic product development. Double stranded siRNA molecules are usually delivered to animal cells by injection and to plant cells by particle bombardment. Here, we reported that oligopeptide polyarginine (POA)/siRNA complex can be efficiently delivered to cultured cells for gene silencing in four plant species. The similar levels of the short interfering RNA-mediated gfp silencing were observed in four transgenic plant cell lines.
Let us consider how to formulate a single molecular frame work for modulating polynucleotides, proteins and cell membranes. In accomplishing this, we might seek chemicals that can reliably self - assemble into modular nanostructures such as tethers, pores and other structural networks. Given such diverse targets, we may further desire facile synthesis of molecules over quite a range of different sizes (from under 100 a.m.u. up to several kiloDaltons) and charge states (from polycation to polyanion, including various different zwitterionic structures and environmentally inducible valences).
In recent years, single cell assays have made exciting progresses, overcoming the issue of heterogeneity associated with bulk populations. The fast-developing sequencing methods now enable unbiased, high-throughput and high-resolution view of the heterogeneity from individual cell within a population, in terms of its fate decisions, identity and function. The cell's state is regulated at different levels, such as DNA, RNA and protein, by complex interplay of intrinsic molecules existing in the organism and extrinsic stimuli such as local environment.
Nonspecific protein adsorption at interfaces is a significant issue in the development of robust biosensors and implantable biomaterials. The reduction of nonspecific protein adsorption plays a key role in improving the compatibility and efficiency of biomaterials. Modifying surfaces to achieve this goal is currently a complicated process, while the primary approach used is through chemical modification of the surface through polymer coatings. Meanwhile, anti-fouling hydrogel coating on solid substrates is a relative new technique in membrane surface modification.
Common bean and red gram constitutes two legume crops par excellence consumed worldwide, including the Indian sub-continent where they serve to satisfy the energy requirements of the population. Importantly, they provide diverse nutrients, protein, and some essential micronutrients. Thus, these model legumes are excellent research materials for high-throughput omic analyses, including proteomics, which is the next frontier post-genome sequencing.
Swine influenza virus (SIV) is an important pathogen. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of a commercial inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine (H1N1/H3N2). Vaccinated pigs with the three batches (# 201604, #201605, and #201606) had no clinical signs of disease, no viral shedding, and any lung lesions after the wild-type SIV-H1N1 LN and SIV-H3N2 HLJ challenge, and the unvaccinated pigs showed clinical signs of disease, had viral shedding, and severe lung lesions.
CRISPR/Cas is a novel technique in editing a specific region of DNA. It has been applied in many organisms and gained great achievements, especially in rice which is one of the main crops supplying food for 50% population in the world. Based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a study successfully generated a variety of TIFY1 mutant lines with some desirable changed in the cold-tolerant gene.
Alzheimer's disease is an unavoidable neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline and ultimate dementia. It is the most common cause of dementia in people of 65 years and older. It affects 10% of people over the age of 65 and 50% over the age of 85 years.
Anthracyclines, such as Doxorubicin (Dox), are among the most effective anti-cancer agents but their clinical use is limited by cumulative dose-dependent cardiac toxicity, which leads to untreatable heart failure (HF) in a high percentage of patients. The primary problem posed by the harmful effects of these drugs are that their long-term use is impaired, leading to an incomplete exploitation of their anti cancer potential .
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