Clinical interventions which focus on extinction learning have been shown to reduce craving and relapse in substance related and behavioural addictions. This paper reports a small pilot study with 20 problem gamblers referred for treatment by a local court diversion program. We investigated the use of portable heart rate monitors to measure the effectiveness of Cue Exposure Therapy (CET) in extinguishing gambling cue-reactivity.
Objectives: Studies on the addictive nature of online social networking activities are emerging, as the usage of online social networking platforms has become increasingly popular. This study aimed to investigate the effects of demographic (age and gender), psychosocial (self-efficacy, social support and life stress), and affective (anxiety) factors on Online Social Networking (OSN) addiction among college students in China and the United States.
Objectives: Problem Gambling (PG) has been linked to several socio-cognitive risk and protective factors; However, knowledge on their impact on problem gamblers in Asia remains. This study compares gambling risk and protective factors between clinical problem gamblers and community individuals in Singapore.
Prescription drug abuse represents a national public health concern. This study reports on 12-month outcomes of a drug court treatment program for 102 female offenders addicted to prescription drugs. The program utilized two evidence-based treatment models (i.e., Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-12 and Seeking Safety). In addition, participants were required to attend monthly judicial reviews, weekly AA/NA groups, and two random drug screens per week.
There exist many causes to evaluate whether a person uses or abuses substances. In these scenarios, it is typically understood that the assessment results will be used to help make decisions about the individual under study. Some of these decisions can greatly affect an examinee's prospects and livelihood. Due to the potential negative impact of disclosing substance use and/or related problems, it is very likely those who struggle with addiction will deny and minimize such problems to avoid penalty, and many go to great lengths to escape identification. For this reason, it can be challenging to accurately identify those who have actual problems and who may need assistance in cutting back or quitting substance use.
Psychotropic substances use and abuse have become a real global problem. Up to now, heroin is still one of the most abused drugs, however its consumption is in sharp decline in favor of Krokodil, also called "the poor's heroine". Krokodil originates from codeine that is extracted from antitussive and analgesic drugs, in "improvised" rudimentary laboratories and through artisan synthetic routes. Its low cost and easy procurement have allowed its rapid and dangerous spread.
Altered Mental Status (AMS) is a common presentation seen in the emergency room and hospital wards. As such, it is essential that physicians have a systematic approach to determine the underlying cause of AMS. Given the increase in opioid usage, opioid withdrawal is an important differential diagnosis of AMS. Opioid withdrawal may be precipated by the cessation of opioid use or the use of an opioid antagonist. Unfortunately, the later may not be immediately considered by the physician to be a cause of a patient's AMS.
Food addiction is a behavioral dependency that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable foods (for example, foods high in fat and sugar) - the types of food that markedly activate the reward system in humans and in other animals - despite the negative consequences. The psychological dependence has also been observed with the presence of withdrawal symptoms when the consumption of these foods is interrupted by the replacement of low fat or sugar foods. In the compulsive eater, the ingestion of trigger foods causes the release of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. This could be another indicator that neurobiological factors contribute to the addiction process. On the contrary, abstinence from addictive foods can trigger withdrawal symptoms.
This study aimed to examine the role of emotional intelligence (EI) and distress disclosure in psychological distress among Egyptian illicit substance users.
Veterans comprise approximately 23.4 million of the U.S. population. Many of these individuals face myriad mental health issues including, but not limited to, post traumatic stress disorder, major depression, traumatic brain injury, and substance use disorders. Moreover, suicidality rates among veterans has increased steadily since 2001.
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