Objective: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection and inflammatory mediators take place in host defense mechanisms. The aim of this study was to examine the consistency and usefulness of c-kit in diagnosis, to establish the roles of iNOS, COX-2 and ICAM-3 in the pathogenesis of Giardia Lamblia infection...
Context: In some patients, Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP) can convert to ordinary chronic pancreatitis, as shown morphologically and/or functionally. However, few reports have assessed long-term pathological findings in patients with AIP.
The protein loss from the digestive tract can result from many diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, neoplasm, abnormalities of the lymphatic system, and infection such as tuberculosis, rotavirus. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare protein-losing enteropathy caused by dilatation of lymph ducts in from the intestine. Differential diagnosis of protein losing enteropathy may be difficult in case of concurrent disorders of rotavirus infection and primary intestinal lymphangiectasy.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) is a first-line therapeutic investigation to manage a wide range of pancreatic and biliary disorders. Post-ERCP pancreatitis is a well-recognised common complication with significant morbidity and mortality. There are a large number of interventions than have been employed to decrease this risk...
Objective: To investigate the quality of tissue collection and preparation in patients undergoing diagnostic endoscopic biopsies for oesophagogastric cancer as DNA yield has implications for molecular analysis for precision oncology.
The incidence of acute pancreatitis has been increased recently with an important mortality rate. Due to that, an adequate management of this pathology is required. Prognosis scales is a useful tool to adequate the treatment. Treatment is based in fluid resuscitation as well as adequate feeding without delay of enteral feeding. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be provided only if another source of infection is clinically suspected and for treatment of fluid collections and necrosis before percutaneous drainage of infectious zone.
Radiotherapy for liver cancers used to be palliative treatment. Currently, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, and particle beam therapy using proton beams and carbon ion beams are used for the treatment of liver cancers. Radiotherapy for liver cancers has become to curative treatment due to the various technical progress. Radiotherapy can accomplish safe and effective treatment for liver cancers.
The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the management of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (LGIB). This entity represents approximately 20% of all cases of gastrointestinal bleeds. The annual incidence is estimated to be between 20 and 27 cases per 100,000 populations, but this data is observed to be increased 200-fold in the elderly. This pathology is mainly self-limited and has a relatively low mortality rate (2-4%). The initial management includes investigate about the form of presentation, color and characteristics of the hemorrhage, the age of the patient, presence of coagulopathy, disease or cardiovascular risk factors, use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), antiaggregants or anticoagulants, previous episodes of hemorrhage, pelvic radiotherapy, endoscopy, polypectomy or previous surgery, change of the recent intestinal rhythm, etc. However, this process must not delay the initiation of hemodynamic resuscitation in patients with patients with ongoing bleeding.
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a chronic condition that begin in childhood and leads to cirrhosis and liver failure in the first years of life. It can be difficult to distinguish from other forms of cholestatic liver diseases. Treatment of PFIC includes medical and surgical methods. This study aimed to review PFIC in light of the recent studies.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). This entity has an annual incidence of 48 to 160 cases per 100,000 adults, with a mortality rate of 10% to 14%. Classically, UGIB is divided in non-variceal hemorrhage and variceal hemorrhage, being more frequently observed the first one (80%-90%). The initial management includes investigate about the form of presentation, color and characteristics of the hemorrhage, the age of the patient, presence of coagulopathy, disease or cardiovascular risk factors, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antiaggregants or anticoagulants, previous episodes of hemorrhage, endoscopy, alcohol intake, etc.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis and which has been designated an orphan condition, is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the destruction of the small bile ducts in the liver. Like other complex disorders, PBC is heterogeneous in its pre-sensation, symptomatology, disease progression and response to therapy. Without effective treatment, disease progression frequently leads to liver failure and death. Until May 2016, when Obeticholic acid (OCA) has been licensed as treatment options for patients with PBC, the only FDA-approved treatment for PBC was Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an oral hydrophilic bile acid, which can slow progression of liver damage due to PBC.
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