Determining the risk of antibiotic-resistant bacterial contamination of emergency medical vehicles and paramedic personnel: Conclusions from a helicopter air ambulance case study

Andrew W Taylor-Robinson*; Sandrine Makiela

    The presence of infectious disease-causing microorganisms in emergency medical vehicles presents potential public health risks in view of the multiple millions of ambulance calls that are made worldwide annually. This risk of infection is to the patients, to the patients’ attendants who may also be transported, and to the paramedic personnel whose work involves pre-hospital transfer. This holds true especially for contamination with those pathogenic microorganisms that pose an increased threat due to their known resistance to front-line antimicrobial agents. Identifying the risks may lead to the development of best practices which could optimise infection control on a routine basis and during a large-scale emergency such as a bioterrorism event or pandemic....

A double look at the application of information and communication technologies in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

Redolat R*; Fernández-Ríos M; Mazza G

    The significant increase in the older population groups has been associated to a higher prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In this context, digital technologies could be useful both for the patient (intervention strategies, biomarkers or in clinical assessment) living in the community and for the informal or professional caregivers. In the present work, the application of information and communication technologies for reminiscence therapy in AD patients and for interventions aimed to reduce burden and anxiety in caregivers are reviewed...

Health professionals’ knowledge about prevention and control of leishmaniosis

Graziella Borges Alves; Talita Carolina Bragança de Oliveira; Nicole Alessandra Nodari; Larianne Maria Belloto de Francisco; Walter Bertequini Nagata; Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes; Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani*

    Leishmaniasis is an important worldwide disease with a zoonotic potential that presenting visceral and cutaneous clinical forms. The domestic dog is seen as the main reservoir of Leishmania spp. and for this reason, it is the target of the control program in some countries. The health professionals’ knowledge about prevention and control of leishmaniasis was investigated. Through interviews with health professionals from endemic regions, it was observed that there are several conceptuais gaps about leishmaniasis....

Neurological manifestations due to congenital toxoplasmosis, verified through the literature integrative review

Sabrina Ramires Sakamoto; Aline do Nascimento Benitez; Joice Cristina dos Santos; Tatiani Palhota Lozano; Juliana Mendonça Ferreira; Saulo Hudson Nery Loiola; Italmar Teodorico Navarro; Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes; Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani*

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a protozootic disease with a worldwide distribution. The clinical manifestations can vary in severity and it affects several fetal tissues when the woman becomes infected during the gestational period. To identify the main neurological manifestations in congenital toxoplasmosis, an integrative review of the literature was carried out, consulting the Virtual Health Library, PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)...

Entrenched deterrents to obesity prevention necessitate radical measures

James L DeBoy

    Despite multiple individual-based strategies to reverse the obesity epidemic in America for some 30 years, obesity rates continue to climb: 39.8 percent of U.S. adults were obese in 2016 with another 27 percent classified as pre-diabetic and 18 percent of American children diagnosed as obese – a figure that has tripled in three decades.

Social and structural vulnerability to HIV infection in Uganda: A multilevel modelling of AIDS indicators survey data, 2004-2005 and 2011

Patrick Igulot*; Monica A Magadi

    Introduction: Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) continues to exhibit inequalities in HIV epidemic. As of 2017, about 69.5% of people living with HIV, 64% of new infections and 73% HIV-related deaths were in SSA. Most HIV research conducted in the continent has focused on individual-level factors.

Healthcare ethics and the law- Why law pervades medicine


    Law has always been the rulebook by which most healthcare professionals guide their medical practice. However and despite healthcare's founding fathers being esteemed philosophers and ethicists, we rarely use moral or ethical principals to guide the care we provide to patients. In this article, a review of Charity Scott's essay entitled Why Law Pervades Medicine: An Essay on Ethics in Health Care shows the continued divide between healthcare and legal practitioners and suggests a movement to a higher standard, namely ethics.

Smoke exposure following domestic pollution: Prevention and community medicine improvement

David Baguma

    Domestic pollution and related impacts are partly from smoke exposure, such as wood fuel smoke, factory smoke, cigarette smoke, motorcycles, and bush burning. The effects of smoke pollution were investigated.

The research advancement of fibroblast on diabetic non-healing skin wound

Juan Du

    The delayed wound healing especially non-healing skin wound is one of the problem in clinical practice and hot research in basic medicine. The common therapies' effects were not confirm. The induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) technology is one of de novo approaches in regeneration medicine these years. The original iPSC was reprogrammed from rat tail fibroblast. So the concept of direct cellular reprogramming was reported versus the iPSC-based reprogramming. Thus we review the fibroblast potential "stem" characteristics and its promotion to the wound healing.

Infectious esophagitis in the immunosuppressed: Candida and beyond

Kais Zakharia, MD,; James H Tabibian, MD, PhD*

    Infection is the second most common cause of esophagitis, second only to gastroesophageal reflux, and represents a clinically important disorder. Immunosuppressed patients are at highest risk for infectious esophagitis, with candida, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus being the most common causative microorganisms. Here we provide a brief clinical review and present a case of concomitant oropharyngeal and presumed esophageal candidiasis and herpes esophagitis diagnosed by endoscopy and histopathology in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis who was initiated on high-dose corticosteroid therapy and soon thereafter develop odynodysphagia.

Health and wellness among incoming resident physicians: A multi-domain survey

James H. Tabibian, MD, PhD; Amanda K. Bertram, MS; Hsin-Chieh Yeh, PhD; Joseph Cofrancesco Jr., MD; Nancy Codori, MD, MPH; Lauren Block, MD, MPH; Edgar R Miller, MD, PhD; Padmini D Ranasinghe, MD MPH; Spyridon S Marinopoulos, MD, MBA

    Introduction: Burnout and depression are well-described in medical students and physicians and can lead to adverse personal and patient outcomes; however, their time course and risk factors remain understudied. Here, we measured multiple domains of mental and physical health and wellness and assessed gender differences among incoming physician trainees beginning residency at an academic medical center.

Neighborhood and social influences on blood pressure: An exploration of causation in the explanatory models of hypertension among African Americans

Kurt Koehler*, Lisa Lewis, Peter F. Cronholm

    African Americans are at the highest risk of having hypertension compared to all other races and ethnicities in the United States. This disparity is compounded by lower rates of medication adherence and blood pressure control among African Americans. Divergence in African American patients' views of their hypertension from the biomedical model may be an important driver in shaping adherence behaviors and outcomes.

Emergency department patients who leave without being seen (LWBS): A population-based study in Veneto region, Italy

Mario Saia*, Marco Fonzo

    Uncompleted visits in the emergency department are a patient safety concern and the two types of uncompleted visits are patients who leave without being seen (LWBS) by a physician and patients who leave the ED against medical advice.

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